Considering the benefits and harm of various diets, we always hope for their balance or imbalance. It’s time to tell what nutrients are, how they affect metabolic processes. Well, and to answer the main question – why diets with the same calorie content, but based on different foods, are of different benefit to the body. And the bonus, to answer the question, why harmful food is harmful?
Virtually all of our natural food products are nutrients.
Note: there is no question of semi-finished products, since very often the lion’s share of the composition is taken up by stabilizers, food additives of class E, dyes and other representatives of inorganic chemistry that simply pass through our body without absorbing, or disintegrating into alkaloids with which it fights our liver.
All nutrients are divided into types:
- Energy – basically – it’s carbohydrates.
- Construction – various kinds of proteins.
- Regulating – fatty foods.
- Auxiliary – fiber. In fact, it is carbohydrates, but more about this later.
In addition, nutrients are also considered such groups of products that contain various vitamins, minerals and other useful substances (acids, alkalis, etc.). As a result, almost all the food we take is nutrients. Read the article about amino acids.
Let’s talk about what nutrients, what products contain:
- Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are kept almost everywhere except meat and eggs.
- Fats. In any fat product, starting from sunflower oil and ending with nuts.
- Proteins. Meat, eggs, milk, sour-milk products, cottage cheese, vegetable protein.
- Cellulose. Green vegetables, red vegetables, watermelons.
Proteins are the only product from the further list, which can be completely organic. Even protein can not be synthesized.
Note: in fact, the protein may be completely synthetic – but in this case its amino acid supply will be depleted, and no such protein will bring any actual benefit to either the person or the manufacturer.
A protein is a fibrous structure that consists of amino acids that form complex parasympathetic bonds. Have you ever seen the structure of DNA? So imagine that the bonds in proteins are even more complex than DNA.
Proteins are divided into 2 categories:
- Vegetable plants. Have an inferior structure. Vegetable protein allows to increase the synthesis of leucine, combining with meat.
- Animals. They have a complete amino acid structure. Animals include not only meat, but also any products of vital activity that can be consumed. Including, milk is a cottage cheese.
Traditionally, it is not customary to include vegetable proteins in the calculation of the diet for several reasons:
- In view of their complex intake with fiber and carbohydrates, they are most often burned into glucose.
- Their amino acid composition is incomplete, and, therefore, can not satisfy the person’s need for the necessary balance of irreplaceable components.
Another classification is more practical for the athlete. Usually in fitness they are divided into:
- Fast. Fast proteins are those that have the highest rate of absorption of amino acids in the overall metabolism. The fastest is considered to be bovine serum, and derived products from it (whey protein). Its reception is ideal for closing the protein window, which is formed within 20 minutes after training.
- Slow. To slow proteins include those that are able to feed our body with building materials for a long time, in view of the peculiarities of splitting in the intestine. Traditional representatives are soy products and products from cottage cheese.
- Integrated. For normal functioning the athlete needs about 1.5-2 grams of complex protein. Complex protein is a combination of slow and fast. There are foods that are saturated with a complex protein. Traditionally it is red meat, chicken breast and egg white.
In order to ensure a full flow of protein into the body, it is necessary to combine different types of protein throughout the day:
- In the morning – fast protein.
- In the afternoon – complex protein.
- After training – fast.
- At night – slow.
In this case, the body will receive evenly all the basic amino acids that are the builders of your muscles.
With fats, everything is somewhat more complicated than it may seem initially. They are divided into:
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids. They are the most important when observing the acid composition. They are easily broken down by the body without converting them into energy, and, therefore, do not settle under the skin, but are a lubricant. It is important to observe a balance in which fats from fish will prevail over fats from meat.
- Polyunsaturated fatty acids. This is a complete form of fat, which is in fat and other products of animal origin. They are a little less useful for the body, because in their classical form they just pass through. If the body needs them (or they are used together with carbohydrates), they either are sent directly to the fat depot, or break down into polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the event that polyunsaturated acids break down into simpler triglycerides, the main alkaloids are released from them. This causes an influx of endorphins and dopamine, but in fact it poisons our body. That’s why fatty food is so delicious. An excess of fat in the blood leads to the accumulation of cholesterol, and free radicals – ruining the root all the benefits of isolating polyunsaturated Omega 3,6,9 acids.
- Trans fats. They disintegrate under the influence of a temperature factor, for example, during frying. And the longer you fry in oil, the more polyunsaturated fatty acids turn into trans fats. What are they dangerous? They can not decompose to polyunsaturated acids because of their damaged structure. At the same time, all the alkaloids are already in them dissolved, which leads, in fact, to instantaneous absorption into the blood. The only thing that an organism can do with such fats is to isolate energy from them, and transfer it to a fat depot, which leads to an additional splitting and restoring the structure due to the beneficial cholesterol in the blood. In most cases, these trans fats, due to their structure, convert useful cholesterol, into harmful, which sticks in the blood vessels and causes heart attacks and strokes.
For a healthy diet, you need exclusively polyunsaturated fatty acids, which must be combined with fiber or protein products (not carbohydrates). Any other types of fats will most likely cause harm and excess weight, failing to fulfill their main function (the synthesis of hormones and joint lubrication).
Carbohydrates deserve special attention, but we will go through the main facts. They are contained in virtually any vegetable products.
The same sugar is made from beets or reeds. And maltodextrin is the simplest molasses, obtained from potatoes or corn.
Carbohydrates are traditionally divided into two criteria:
- Glycemic index. It determines the speed of digestion of carbohydrates, and, consequently, its complexity for our digestive system. The more complex the carbohydrate, the more uniformly it gives energy to the blood. And, consequently, the less is the insulin load on the body.
- Glycemic load. It determines how the digestive system handles carbohydrates. For example, a product with a low glycemic index, but a high load – is fructose. That is why, an organism that does not release enough insulin for its digestion, usually drives it right into the fat store, allocating alkaloids – which cause euphoria.
Traditionally, the athlete’s organism is fed with complex carbohydrates. And it’s not about insulin reactions and glycemic indices, but in simpler things. The simpler the carbohydrate – the faster it is metabolized, and, consequently, the feeling of hunger after a snack is faster. In order not to feel hunger strikes and not to feel destructive catabolic consequences, athletes use the most complex carbohydrates to strictly control caloric content and not to swim with fat.
Nutrient consumption during the day
Note: the data presented below are of an informative statistical nature and do not reflect the individual needs and peculiarities of metabolic processes in the human body.
Let’s analyze a person with a normal metabolism, which does not strive for a set of muscle mass, but is actively involved in the vorouth.
In the morning, he prevails catabolic processes, which should be repaid exclusively by the protein of fast action. All this is due to the fact that in the process of nightlife, the body is in a reset, reconfigures almost all systems. As a result – increased consumption of protein and fat tissue, with external small calorie intake.
In particular, during a full 8-hour sleep, the body loses only about 300-500 kcal. At the same time, the consumption of protein and adipose tissue is as follows:
- About 40 grams of proteins are spent on the synthesis of hormones, enzymes.
- The order of 15 grams of protein is spent on maintaining the level of muscle mass.
- About 10 grams of fats are involved in cholesterol and hormone metabolism.
- About 20 grams of carbohydrates are involved in energy costs for transporting all these elements.
In case the body does not receive the necessary nutrients from the evening, it starts catabolic processes, thanks to which the protein from muscle tissue is split for the synthesis of hormones and enzymes.
In the morning, along with fast proteins, it is necessary to stock up slow carbohydrates, since with a traditional three meals a day, the body must draw energy on the motor processes throughout the day. Therefore, the expenditure of nutrients is broken down as follows:
- 80% carbohydrates
- 3% fat. They are used exclusively as a lubricant for ligaments and joints.
- 17% protein tissues. To maintain the level of fermentation and other metabolic processes in the body.
In the evening, after the last meal, the body intensively spends energy on maintaining the insulin level, and on replenishing the destruction of muscle tissue throughout the day. In addition to this, you can add nutrient consumption to the training process and to mental activity. On this basis, and take the average formula, where the number of calories is divided into:
- 65% carbohydrates – mostly slow.
- 25% protein products. In view of their low energy value – the athlete and goes to its standard rate.
- The remainder is for fats. To maintain the level of hormones, lubrication of ligaments and joints.
Those. for every thousand kilocalories in your diet (regardless of the type of diet), you should receive:
- 20 grams of fat. The predominantly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids.
- 100 grams of carbohydrates
- about 35-40 grams of protein tissue.
Scaling to the standard food for an athlete of medium composition we leave on:
- 50-60 grams of fat.
- 300-500 grams of carbohydrates.
- 120-150 grams of protein.
How correctly to distribute nutrition on the nutrient composition?
For example, for an athlete weighing 75 kilograms, with an amount of subcutaneous fat of about 15 percent, to gain muscle mass with intensive high-volume workouts, you need:
- 5 grams of complex protein (or 100 grams of vegetable and 100 grams of animal protein).
- About 4,500 kcal.
- About 50 grams of fat. It is important that the latter is evenly distributed in a 6: 1: 1 ratio between omega 3, 6 and 9 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively.
Consider an approximate nutrition plan for a week.
|Monday||Portion of buckwheat cereal in milk – 250 grams of dry product.A cup of coffee / tea / mineral water to choose from||1-2 fruits.Preferably citrus to accumulate a positive balance of vitamin C||Meat stew.Roast. Or porridge with boiled breast. A choice of 450 grams of the finished product||Protein cocktail without carbohydrates on fast protein – 1 serving||5-10% cottage cheese 250 grams, with sour cream and a small amount of sugar substitute|
|Tuesday||Portion of oatmeal with fruit – 250 grams of dry productA cup of coffee / tea / mineral water to choose from||A portion of a protein cocktail with long proteins.Preferably, the soy isolate or curd substrate||Vegetable soup with meatballs made from rice.Without roasting – 1-2 plates.||Gainer maltose – 150 grams. Rich in Creatine||Long carbohydrates with extremely low glycemic load – about 300 grams.|
|Wednesday||Portion of buckwheat cereal in milk – 250 grams of dry product.A cup of coffee / tea / mineral water to choose from||1-2 fruits.Preferably citrus to accumulate a positive balance of vitamin C||Meat stew.Roast. Or porridge with boiled breast. A choice of 450 grams of the finished product||Protein cocktail without carbohydrates on fast protein – 1 serving||5-10% cottage cheese 250 grams, with sour cream and a small amount of sugar substitute|
|Thursday||Portion of oatmeal with fruit – 250 grams of dry productA cup of coffee / tea / mineral water to choose from||A portion of a protein cocktail with long proteins.Preferably, the soy isolate or curd substrate||Vegetable soup with meatballs made from rice.Without roasting – 1-2 plates.||Gainer maltose – 150 grams. Rich in Creatine||Long carbohydrates with extremely low glycemic load – about 300 grams.|
|Friday||Portion of buckwheat cereal in milk – 250 grams of dry product.A cup of coffee / tea / mineral water to choose from||1-2 fruits.Preferably citrus to accumulate a positive balance of vitamin C||Meat stew.Roast. Or porridge with boiled breast. A choice of 450 grams of the finished product||Protein cocktail without carbohydrates on fast protein – 1 serving||5-10% cottage cheese 250 grams, with sour cream and a small amount of sugar substitute|
|Saturday||Portion of oatmeal with fruit – 250 grams of dry productA cup of coffee / tea / mineral water to choose from||A portion of a protein cocktail with long proteins.Preferably, the soy isolate or curd substrate||Vegetable soup with meatballs made from rice.Without roasting – 1-2 plates.||Gainer maltose – 150 grams. Rich in Creatine||Long carbohydrates with extremely low glycemic load – about 300 grams.|
|Sunday||Chitmill.The puffed cake is 350 grams.A cup of sweet tea. Fruit – not less than 300 grams||Gainer 2 servings||Trip to the McDonald’s.French fries 2 servings.2 makmenju with bigtesty||Sweets, sweet, fast carbohydrates||The end of the day is better to unload yourself and use pure protein foods – for example 1-2 liters of yogurt from the store.|
Note: the nutrition plan is not diverse, but balanced by amino acids and by major groups of nutrients. In addition, the 5-fold structure, and the cyclization of the same products allows us to establish metabolic processes, maintaining an increased rate of anabolic reactions, and the overall rate of metabolic processes to avoid the accumulation of fatty layer.
If necessary, it is possible to regulate this food by the portion size. So, it has an almost perfect composition for proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Remember that if you set a goal for yourself (for example, losing weight), then you do not need to limit yourself to a product or follow a popular diet only because of the feedback it helped someone. You do not need a diet at all. As any diets in their modern understanding are related to professional dietology, and, therefore, you will have to go to a specialist who will individually make up a nutrition plan.
But it is the food plan that you can create yourself, thanks to the knowledge gained about:
- Metabolic processes in the body.
- Deficiency of caloric content.
- Features of nutrient consumption and energy.
And most importantly – it is enough to choose caloric content and take into account the overall balance of nutrients. And voila – the ideal diet that takes into account almost all your needs, is not torture, and is made up exclusively of those products that you like.